Books and articles
CD Reviews


Shaker music in our time





Please help support the mission of this informational website.

Order music collections, broadsides, CDs or DVDs from the

AMP Store

Also use this handy Search Box to order merchandise from

  Enter keywords...



The Shakers in America


The United Society of Believers, now known as The Shakers, arrived in New York City on 6 August 1774. Their first settlement was in what was then called Niskeyuna (later Watervleit), and eventually they had communities in New York State, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Georgia and Florida.

The last two Shaker communities have been in New England.

The former one at Canterbury, New Hampshire no longer has
any Shakers living there and is now a well preserved museum.
The last Shaker member, Sister Ethel Hudson, died at Canterbury in 1992.

The other one is at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. It is the only active Shaker community and is believed to be the oldest religious communal society
in the United States, having begun back in the 1780s.

Contrary to what some have written, there are many songs, hymns and anthems in four-part harmony (SATB),some of them included on this 2 CD set:



Let Zion Move: Music of the Shakers





The last known Shaker song was titled "My Shaker Home" and was composed in 1959 by Sister Lillian Phelps. An arrangement of this song is included on this CD:


A choral arrangement of the Shaker hymn
"Celestial Praises" (Canterbury, New Hampshire, 1841),
originally printed in "letteral" (or alphabet) music notation,
and 25 Premeiere Recordings of Shaker songs and hymns,
are included on this highly
praised new CD:

"Celestial Praises" - A Celebration of Shaker Spirituals


Meeting The Shakers


In his collection of songs, poems and stories titled, "Dream World," composer and ethnomusicologist Roger Lee Hall, tells the story how he met several Shaker sisters during the 1970s that led to his extensive research and recordings of Shaker music.

In 1972, he interviewed two Shakers from Canterbury, New Hampshire who were both very musical. Eldress Bertha Lindsay sang a selection of Shaker songs, for example, "May I Softly Walk," and another Shaker sister was her piano accompanist and she is shown here...


Sister Lillian Phelps(1876-1973)
Canterbury, New Hampshire

© Photograph by Gail Hall, 1972



© Photograph by Gail Hall, 1974


In 1974, Roger Lee Hall introduced the distinguished composer, Aaron Copland , known for his wonderful arrangements of "Simple Gifts" in Appalachian Spring and Old American Songs, to several Shakers from Sabbathday Lake, Maine. One of the Shakers who met Copland was Sister Mildred Barker (1897-1990), the best known Shaker singer of the past half century. This meeting is described in this publuication:


Simple Gifts book on a multi-media DVD
with picture gallery, music examples
and video clips

Also available is an informative illustrated monograph of historical material and lyrics to 25 of the best known Shaker spirituals, and also with an accompanying music album on a multimedia CD-ROM. It is titled,

Gentle Words: Shaker Music in the 20th Century


This monograph has discoveries by ethnomusicologist, Roger Lee Hall, and includes interviews with Eldress Bertha Lindsay and Sister Lillian Phelps
at Canterbury, New Hampshire,
also with Sister Mildred Barker at Sabbathday Lake, Maine.

It is available on a multi-media CD-ROM:

Blended Together: Discoveries Along The Shaker Music Trail

Listen to the conversations with several Shaker sisters about their music
on these two CDs --

Blended Together: Interview with the Shakers

Gentle Words: A Shaker Music Sampler

See also these memorial tributes to departed Shakers:



© Photograph by Gail Hall, 1983

"Mother has come with her beautiful song"
A Memorial Tribute to Sister R. Mildred Barker




© Photograph by Gail Hall, 1972

"May I softly walk and wisely speak"
A Memorial Tribute to Eldress Bertha Lindsay




Photo by Ann Chwatsky from the book, The Four Seasons of Shaker Life:
An Intimate Portrait of the Community at Sabbathdauy Lake,
by Gerard C. Wertkin
(Simon & Shuster, 1986).

"Gentle words kindly spoken"
A Memorial tribute to Sister Marie Burgess

Arrangements vs. Editions


The most popular and best known Shaker song today was written back in 1848 by Elder Joseph Brackett Jr. and titled: "Simple Gifts."

There have been many arrangements of this well known Shaker dance song, especially those by Aaron Copland.

Also there have been different editions of"Simple Gifts" which have been published, including those by Edward Deming Andrews, Roger Hall, and Daniel Patterson.

With all the versions of "Tis the gift to be simple" being written today, there exists some confusion between what is an arrangement and what is an edition.



An arrangement is a piece of music that has been significantly altered, such as adding new voice parts and keyboard or other instrumental accompaniment. For example,"Love is Little," a Shaker song arranged as a four part chorus [shown at left] by Roger Hall, is an arrangement since it has three voice parts added to the original melody. Examples of Shaker arrangements are found in the Music Supplement of A Guide to Shaker Music. See also: Shaker music arrangements






An edition is basically the original music itself with only minor changes. No significant alterations are made to the original music. Examples of this are found in Daniel Patterson's The Shaker Spiritual and Roger Hall's Love is Little: A Sampling of Shaker Spirituals [shown at left].

See the music editions listed at

Shaker Books and Articles

There are also recordings with
edited Shaker music at

CD and DVD Releases



Whichever type is used for performance,
the arranger or editor should always be credited in concerts or recordings.

Remember that original Shaker music may be in public domain, but much of it would not be available for performance if it were not for the work of the arrangers and editors. They deserve to be recognized for their work.

One example of a Shaker song with both an edition and arrangement is by the last Shaker male from a Massachusetts Shaker community, Brother Ricardo Belden. He was interviewed in the mid-1950s by Jerome Count from the Shaker Village Work Camp in New Lebanon, NY. Brother Ricardo sang one Shaker song during the recorded interview,

"Living Souls, Let's Be Marching" --included on the CD compiled by Roger Lee Hall: Gentle Words - A Shaker Music Sampler

There is a fascinating article titled, "Brother Ricardo Belden Revisited" by Magda Gabor-Hotchkiss in American Communal Societies Quarterly, Vol. 6/ No. 1 (January 2012). She maintains that Brother Ricardo Belden was born in 1868 not 1870, as previously thought. Also included are several pictures of Brother Ricardo demonstrating Shaker dances.

"Living Souls Let's be Marching" is available on two different CDs and songbooks, the first one an edited version and the second CD has an arrangement:

Love is Little: A Sampling of Shaker Spirituals (edited by Roger Hall)

For the Love of Zion (arranged by Jack Bomer)


Are you looking for Shaker music to perform or research
for an article or book?

See the 56 Shaker songs and hymns listed at the

Shaker Music Series



John Adams and his Shaker Loops

One of the most popular classical compisitions of the past few decades is an instrumental piece titled, Shaker Loops, composed by composer, John Adams. He composed this piece in remembrance of where he grew up in New England. As he tells it:

"From the front window of our home in New Hampshire I could see Shaker Road, which led several miles up trhough the woods to a defunct Shaker colony in the nearby tiny village of Canterbury. As a child I'd heard stories, probably exaggerated, of the 'shaking' ceremonies. 'Shaker' had originally been a term of mockery. In fact, these church members called themselves the United Society of Believers. But the image of their shaking dance caught my attention. The idea of reaching a similar state of ecstatic revelation through music was certainly in my mind as I composed Shaker Loops."

--from Halleujah Junction: Composing an American Life by John Adams,
pages 91-92.




Read about the composer of
the best known Shaker song, "Simple Gifts"

Click here






The Shakers On Television

Two television programs about the Shakers are included on this DVD.

Click here



Ken Burns and Shaker Music

Ken Burns is known for his well received series on PBS television,
such as"The Civil War"; "Baseball"; and "Jazz."

One of his first documentary films he made was premiered on PBS in 1985:


  Ken Burns' America: The Shakers

Ken Burns' America: The Shakers





Film Project

A story treatment is available for consideration by filmmakers or film producers interested in a making a dramatic film about the early Shakers, including their most prominent early church leaders who were also singers and songwriters.

The story of their early years and voyage from England to America, their triumph over persecution and prejudice, and their early missionary travels
would make a highly compelling dramatic film or a documentary.

The hauntingly beautiful Shaker music would be ideal for the film's soundtrack.

Inquiries about this story treatment and music should be directed to:

Shaker Film Project



Music Commissions


Would you like to commission one or more Shaker spirituals for a concert,
church service or a special event like an anniversary?

Composer Roger Lee Hall has arranged many Shaker tunes over the past three decades.

He is available to edit or arrange Shaker music for solo voice or
for a chorus with or without asccompaniment.

Examples of his Shaker arrangements are found on these CDs:


"Celestial Praises" - A Celebration of Shaker Spirituals


"Gentle Words" - A Shaker Music Sampler

Gentle Words - Shaker Music in the 20th Century


To inquire about commissioning music
for a special event or a concert,
write to:

Shaker Music Commission




Lectures and Workshops



Are you interested in scheduling an entertaining music program
by Shaker music scholar and singer Roger Lee Hall?

For more information, click on this link:

Shaker Music Lectures and Workshops




Original Shaker Music Recordings

These CD releases feature interviews and singing by the Shakers...


Blended Together: Interview with the Shakers


Gentle Words: A Shaker Music Sampler




Early Shaker Spirituals (Rounder Records)

A CD collection of 40 Shaker spirituals sung by The United Society of Shakers, Sabbathday Lake, Maine. Many of the spirituals are sung by Sister R. Mildred Barker, the foremost Shaker singer of her time. The spirituals include laboring songs, gift songs, prayer songs, a hymn and anthem and several interviews with Sister Mildred Barker. Notes and texts for all the music are provided by Daniel W. Patterson.


You can order from here:

Early Shaker Spirituals



Let Zion Move: Music of the Shakers
(Rounder Records)

This 2 CD set includes 40 Shaker spirituals sung by the Shakers from Canterbury, New Hampshire and Sabbathday Lake, Maine. It includes a history of Shaker music narrated by Sister R. Mildred Barker and Sister Lillian Phelps. There are also interviews with Sister R. Mildred Barker, Eldress Bertha Lindsay, and Sister Lillian Phelps.

The interviews were done in 1960 by William (Bill) Randle, and in 1972 and 1980 by Roger Hall, who has compiled and written the notes for this unique historical collection. This 2 disc set also includes a 72 page illustrated booklet with examples of Shaker music and all the texts for the Shaker spirituals on the CDs.


You can order from at this link:

Let Zion Move: Music of the Shakers


There are also two CDs featuring the Boston Camerata and other musicians, joined by the Shakers from Sabbathday Lake available from


Simple Gifts: Shaker Chants and Spirituals

The Golden Harvest: More Shaker Chants and Spirituals




Related Links


CD and DVD Releases -- original and arranged Shaker tunes.

"Gentle Words" - A Shaker Song Discovery

Reviews of Books and CDs -- relating to Shaker music.

A Shaker Music Miscellany -- Deluxe DVD with music and video clips.

Shaker Music History -- 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.


If you have any questions or comments,
write to:

Shaker Music Today

Help support the mission of

American Music

Use this handy Search Box to order merchandise from

  Enter keywords...

Return to top of the page





© 2006-2014 PineTree Multimedia Productions. All Rights Reserved.