The Simple Gifts
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The 19th Century
About 1805, the first hymns were written down with text only, without any tunes.
The first printed Shaker hymnbook, Millennial Praises, was printed at Hancock, Massachusetts in 1813 and had 140 hymn texts but no tunes. But there were tunes written down for the hymns in Shaker music manuscript volumes.
These are a few of the prominent hymns in Millennial Praises:
Mother -- the best known early Shaker ballad hymn by Richard McNemar which tells the story of early Shakerism and Mother Ann Lee's journey from England to America.
Rights of Conscience -- a hymn by Issachar Bates which begins with a tribute to George Washington, then details the trials and tribulations of the early Shakers.
Another early hymn not in Millennial Praises is titled,
The Humble Heart -- with words by Eunice Wyeth (1756-1830) and tune by Thomas Hammond (1791-1880) and written at the Shaker community in Harvard, Massachusetts about 1820. Here is a manuscript copy of this hymn in Shaker "letteral" music notation:
An arrangement of "The Humble Heart," sung by Colleen Liggett and
Roger Hall, is included on the CD: Gentle Words:
A Shaker Music Sampler.
An arrangement of "The Humble Heart" for solo voice (or chorus) and keyboard is included in the Music Supplement of A GUIDE TO SHAKER MUSIC.
The Shakers began composing in more than one voice part in the 1830s.
One of the earliest was is the three part hymn (soprano-tenor-bass),
Ode to Contentment with music by Issachar Bates.
They began using four part harmony, though not extensively, during the 1840s.
By the 1850s, thousands of hymns and songs had been written, most of them single line melodies.
After the Civil War, the number of single line melodies declined and harmonized hymns (SATB) increased throughout the remainder of the 19th century.
There were over 2,000 Shaker songs, hymns and anthems included in their printed hymnals.
Around 1815, the third type of Shaker music was introduced -- the anthem.
This was a longer piece of unrhymed music, similar to anthems by New England composers like William Billings and Jacob French.
One of the most prominent early anthems was "Mount Zion"
by Issachar Bates (1758-1837), composed about 1815, as shown in this
The anthem was included in the first published Shaker hymnal with music, A Sacred Repository of Anthems and Hymns, printed in 1852 at Canterbury, New Hampshire by this Shaker leader,
Elder Henry C. Blinn
"Mount Zion" is performed on the CD,
Gentle Words: A Shaker Music Sampler.
Issachar Bates, who composed "Mount Zion," had been a fifer in the American Revolution and afterwards a Baptist song leader before he joined the Shakers in 1801. He was the first Shaker major tunesmith who made missionary journeys to Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana, and was also a church elder at various communities before returning to New Lebanon, NY in 1835. His best known spiritual was the quick dance song, "Come Life, Shaker Life."
A much later anthem in four voice parts (SATB) was Elder James Russell's 1883 anthem, "Millennial Praise" [recorded on Gentle Words].
All three types of Shaker music (songs, hymns, and anthems)
continued to be written throughout the 19th century.
The words and music for many 19th century Shaker titles are included in the songbook and accompanying CD titled:
Love is Little: A Sampling of Shaker Spirituals
This CD and songbook has 36 Shaker spirituals representing all the major Shaker communities, from Maine to Kentucky.
The collection has a representativeselection of different types of Shaker music, such as dance songs, gift songs, greeting songs, humility songs, march songs, anthem and gospel hymns. In addition to the words and music for all the spirituals, there are also extensive notes and a bibliography of Shaker collections and editions.
Part Three: 20th Century Shaker Music>
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