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Shaker Music - An Introduction

By Roger Hall

The television and newspaper journalists like to portray the Shakers as soon becoming extinct or already gone. While it is true there are only a few Shakers left, they remain busy with their religious life, as well as operating a library, museum and gift shop during the regular tourist season from May to October.

The last remaining Shaker community is located at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. with an active Friends of the Shakers support group.

The music of the Shakers contains some of the most beautiful religious folk melodies from America's past. It is also among the oldest singing traditions in the USA and began in the 1780s. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Shakers had thousands of members in New York State, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and later on in Georgia and Florida.

For several centuries, from the 1780s to 1950s, there were over 10,000 Shaker tunes composed -- the largest output of any religious communal society in America.

Much of their music remains unknown today to the general public and musicians, except for the Shaker song, "Simple Gifts," which was first arranged by Aaron Copland.

It is often assumed that because it is folk music, all Shaker tunes are anonymous. Not true!

Many of them can be credited to a Shaker sister, such as the humility song,"Gentle Words" by Polly M. Rupe, or to a Shaker brother, like the dance song,"Come Life, Shaker Life" by Issachar Bates.

Sometimes a Shaker hymn is divided between the sexes, for example, "The Humble Heart" from the Shaker community at Harvard, Massachusetts has a text by Eunice Wyeth and a tune by Thomas Hammond Jr.

Unfortunately, there has been a great deal of incorrect information spread around about Shaker music by writers who have failed to do enough research before writing their articles or books. They are seemingly unaware of the vast amount of music editions, arrangements and recordings available.

The most common error is classifying all Shaker music as traditional hymns. That is incorrect and misleading. There are actually three broad categories of Shaker music:

One ot two verse songs

Multi-verse hymns

Prose anthems

It is not generally known that there were "white" (or Anglo-American) spirituals as well as "black" (or Afro-American) spirituals. Both types have a folklike, deeply emotional and sometimes frenzied connection between words and music.

Shaker tunes are examples of religious folk music, including lively dance tunes, "gift" songs, millennial hymns, prose anthems and other music types. They are best classified together as: Shaker spirituals.


Shaker "Letteral" Music Notation

From about 1820 until nearly the end of the 19th century, The Shakers used their own form of alphabet music notation they called the "letteral system."

Here is an example of an early Shaker song using "letteral notation" --

"Father James's Song" (aka: "In Yonder Valley") was composed in 1787 by Father James Whittaker at Enfield, Connecticut, one of the original Shaker leaders who emigrated from England in 1774. It is believed to be the first complete Shaker song with words and music.

Shaker letteral notation can be explained using the above example. The pitches are the same as the letters indicate. Quarter notes have just the letter of the alphabet. Eighth notes have a single line over or under them. Half notes have a line on the left side of the letter.

Thus, the first measure has g (dotted quarter note) and a (eighth note), then g (quarter note) and e-d (two eighth notes). The next measure begins on c (half note) then d and e (quarter notes). The entire tune is in 4/4 (or Common Time) indicated by two double lines at the beginning of the tune. The dotted lines indicate the sections to be repeated. Here is the tune transcribed into modern conventional notation:


© Love is Little: A Sampling of Shaker Spirituals,
Compiled and Annotated by Roger Hall
Rochester, NY: Sampler Records Ltd., 1996



Shaker Songs


Shaker songs were the earliest ones and originated in the 1780s. They usually had only one verse, such as "Simple Gifts." Though the form is not always the same, they are often in two strains of 8 measures each with each section repeated with a form of AA + BB. The Shakers wrote songs from the 18th and 19th centuries and, less frequently, in the 20th century.

The last known original Shaker song was in 1959 by Sister Lillian Phelps. The song is titled:"My Shaker Home." This song received its first public performance fifty years later, when performed by Roger Hall at Canterbury Shaker Village in 2009, and his arrangement of this song is available on the CD, "Celestial Praises" - A Celebration of Shaker Spirituals.


Shaker Hymns

The first hymns were written about 1805 and the first printed hymnal,
Millennial Praises, was published in 1812-13, but with texts only and no music.

One of the best known early hymns was "The Humble Heart" (text: Eunice Wyeth/ tune: Thomas Hammond Jr.). This beautiful hymn is included on these CDs:

"Celestial Praises" (arrangedment by Conrad Held)
"Gentle Words" (arrangement by Roger Lee Hall)

Shaker hymns originally had melody only and often have this form A + BB. During the 1830s, some of their hymns were harmonized in three voice parts (soprano-tenor-bass). An example of an early harmonized hymn is "Ode to Contentment," recorded on the CD, Gentle Words - A Shaker Music Sampler.

After the 1870s, most of their hymns were in four parts (soprano-alto-tenor-bass) and many of them were printed in their published hymnals between 1875 and 1908.

There are thousands of hymns in Shaker manuscript volumes and thousands more in printed Shaker hymnals. "A Checklist of Printed shaker Hymnals" is included as a file on the mutli-media DVD: The Humble Heart.


Shaker Anthems

Around 1815, anthems began to be written, similar in style to early New England anthems by William Billings and others, except Shaker anthems had melody only.

By the 1840s, Shaker anthems began to be harmonized in three or four voice parts as well as melody only. After 1870, most of their anthems were in four voice parts (soprano-alto-tenor-bass).

An example of an early Shaker anthem with melody only:
"Mount Zion" (1815) by Elder Issachar Bates (recorded on the Gentle Words CD)

A later anthem in four parts (SATB) is "Millennial Praise" by Elder James Russell in 1883, with the sheet music and recording on this DVD:
Singing New Englanders, From The Pilgrims to The Shakers




Shaker Music On Film

A story treatment is available for consideration by filmmakers or producers interested in a making a film about the most prominent early Shaker church leaders, such as Mother Ann Lee and Father James Whittaker, who were also singers and songwriters. The story of their early years in England and their triumph over persecution and prejudice, and their early missionary travels through New England would make a highly compelling dramatic film or a documentary.

If you would like to discuss this story treatment or use Shaker music in a feature film or documentary, write to:

Shaker music for a film



Music collections
on DVDs



click here



click here



"Simple Gifts" - Great American Folk Song




A Shaker Music Miscellany -
Deluxe DVD-ROM with sheet music and over 200 music examples



"May We Ever Be United"
Music of the North Union, Ohio Shakers

This music collection includes a representative sampling of tunes from the Shaker community at North Union. The material was compiled from many years of research and includes source identifications and the most complete information about composers and music from this northern Ohio Shaker community (today known as Shaker Heights).

Read more -- click here

Shaker Music CDs



Celestial Praises: A Celebration of Shaker Spirituals
Arrangements by Roger Lee Hall and Conrad Held
The Canterbury Singers
Kathryn Southworth, Director

You can order a download of the muisc by Roger Lee Hall at CD Baby






Gentle Words: A Shaker Music Sampler


Joy of Angels:
Shaker Spirituals for Christmas and the New Year


Love is Little:
A Sampling of Shaker Spirituals







For a list of Shaker music books and articles ,

click here





Music Commissions

Would you like to commission one or more Shaker spirituals for a concert,
church service or a special event?

Composer Roger Lee Hall has arranged many Shaker tunes.

He is available to edit or arrange Shaker music for solo voice or
for a chorus with or without accompaniment.

Examples of his Shaker arrangements are found here






To inquire about Shaker music for a special event or a concert,
write to:

Shaker Music Commission




Lectures and Workshops


Are you interested in scheduling an entertaining Shaker music program
for your school, college, church, museum or other organization?

For more information about Roger Lee Hall's programs,
click on this link:

Music Lectures and Workshops



Related AMP Links


CD and DVD Releases

Issachar Bates and "Come Life, Shaker Life"

Joseph Brackett's "Simple Gifts"

Shaker Music Archive

Shaker Music in Our Time

Shaker Music Books and Articles

Shaker Music Scholar

Reviews of Books and CDs





If you have any questions,
click this link to:

Shaker Music on AMP

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